To address the specific Annex objectives research and development will be divided into four concurrent subtasks, wherein appropriate research methodologies will be adopted. The four main subtasks are as follows:
- Subtask A: Impact Assessment
- Subtask B: Solutions
- Subtask C: Field Studies
- Subtask D: Policy Actions
Subtask A: Impact Assessment
This subtask will systematically assess the benefits, limitations and performance indicators of resilient cooling and will identify barriers as well as conductive conditions to implementation.
The subtask will provide guidelines for the integration of resilient cooling systems in existing and new energy performance calculation methods, and indoor comfort prediction methods.
Appropriate KPIs will be developed during the first phases of the Annex to evaluate resilience of cooling systems using a holistic approach that includes technical criteria (e.g. life cycle cost effectiveness, energy efficiency) social aspects (e.g. affordability, usability, availability) and ecological impacts (e.g. carbon intensity, climate warming potential).
Subtask A will be organized as a number of tightly focussed activities. A key aspect of this work will be the assembly and synthesis of current knowledge and evidence bases, and will involve intensive collaboration and exchange of information between the participating institutions and countries.
The subtask will be divided into the following research activities.
Activity A.1. This will include systematic assessment of potential benefits and other impacts, limitations and performance indicators of resilient cooling systems under a wide range of application scenarios and other boundary conditions. We will generate Resilient Cooling ‘Technology Profiles’ to clearly summarise and promote the operational characteristics and benefits of each technology/system. Recommendations for good implementation, commissioning and operation will also be developed. Barriers to application and further research opportunities will be identified, which will inform research activities of Subtask B.
Activity A.2. This activity will focus on the development of multi-criteria technology characterisation methodologies that will lead to consistent and measurable key performance indicators (KPIs) covering technical performance, range of situations where particular systems are applicable, ecological and social aspects, ecological impacts, and user-technology interaction analyses. This work will be tailored to residential buildings and smaller commercial buildings with relatively simple building management systems (BMS). The KPIs derived from this research activity will then also be implemented in the Technology Profiles of research activity A.1.
Activity A.3. This activity will include identification and further development of methods and tools for prediction of the capacity and performance of the full range of viable resilient cooling system types to reduce cooling needs and overheating risks. Again, the findings on suitable methods and tools from this research activity will be integrated into the multi-criteria Technology Profiles generated in research Activity A.1.
Subtask B: Solutions
This subtask will carry out specific research towards improvements and new developments of resilient cooling and overheating protection solutions. Il will extend the boundaries of existing low energy and low carbon cooling solutions and develop new solutions, combinations of technologies and applications.
Subtask B will be organized within specific national R&D projects, including methodological approaches such as numeric modelling and measurements on lab scale and prototype scale.
Given that many countries have specific climatic and other contextual interests Subtask B will cover research topics that are both internationally relevant and nationally specific. It will cover a broad variety of research topics and research methodologies, leveraging the specific research priorities and capabilities of the participants in the Annex.
The subtask will be divided into the following research activities.
Activity B.1. This activity will carry out specific research towards the extension of the range of situations where existing resilient cooling technologies and systems may be applied (e.g. with regard to building type, climate zones, occupancy characteristics, etc).
Activity B.2. will examine user interaction issues and system control issues, including the impact of user behaviour on system performance.
Subtask C: Field Studies
This subtask will showcase the opportunities and benefits of resilient cooling through analysis and evaluation of well-documented applications of different low energy and low carbon technologies. The field studies will synthesise examples of specific technologies and solutions rather than focussing on specific buildings. It will examine the performance gap of existing cooling applications, with special concern at socio-technological interaction as well as control strategies.
The outcomes of Subtask C will illustrate and support the Technology Profiles developed in Subtask A.
The subtask will be structured into the following research activities:
Activity C.1. Development of a clear framework for presentation of field studies.
Activity C.2. Performance analysis and evaluation of performance gaps of resilient cooling solutions, design methods and tools with special concern at socio-technological interaction as well as control strategies using criteria and methods defined in Activity C.1.
Activity C.3. Lessons learned and development of recommendations for design and operation of resilient cooling solutions as well as identification of barriers for application and functioning.
Subtask D: Policy Actions
Subtask D will deal with policy related endeavours promoting energy efficiency and resilience in cooling. This subtask seeks to advance product labelling programmes, AC minimum energy performance standards (MEPs) as well as the implementation of sustainable building codes in national, European and international standards.
This subtask will analyse product labelling programmes, building regulations, standards and compliance requirements, to identify international best practice examples as well as potential barriers. One of the objectives of subtask D is to set frameworks for Demand Side Management (DSM) including social programmes and others.
The goal is to develop recommendations for future regulatory policies to support the implementation and mainstreaming of resilient cooling systems on a national, European and international level.
In that sense Subtask D will strive to represent a toehold for international programmes such as KIGALI – Cooling Efficiency Programme, Mission Innovation Challenge #7 and correlated IEA Technology Collaborating Programmes.
Activity D.1. The analysis and international cross comparison of national and international product labelling programmes, AC minimum energy performance standards (MEPs), sustainability aspects building regulations and standards relating to resilient cooling are subject of this activity.
Activity D.2. Subtask D is expected to act as toehold for collaboration with international programmes such as KIGALI – Cooling Efficiency Programme, Mission Innovation Challenge #7 and correlated IEA Technology Collaborating Programmes.