To address the specific Annex objectives research and development will be divided into four concurrent subtasks, wherein appropriate research methodologies will be adopted. The four main subtasks are as follows:
- Subtask A: Impact Assessment
- Subtask B: Solutions
- Subtask C: Field Studies
- Subtask D: Policy Actions
Subtask A: Impact Assessment
Subtask A systematically assesses the benefits, limitations and performance indicators of resilient cooling solutions. It identifies barriers as well as conductive conditions to implementation. The subtask provides guidelines for the integration of resilient cooling systems in existing and new energy performance calculation methods, and indoor comfort prediction methods.
Appropriate KPIs are developed within Subtask A, to evaluate resilience of cooling systems using a holistic approach that includes economical and technical criteria (e.g. life cycle cost effectiveness, technical life span, energy efficiency), environmental impacts (e.g. effects on urban heat islands, local air pollution), cultural and social aspects (e.g. affordability, usability, availability) and ecological impacts (e.g. carbon intensity, climate warming potential).
Subtask A is organized as a number of tightly focussed activities. A key aspect of this work assembles and synthesises current knowledge and evidence bases, and involves intensive collaboration and exchange of information between the participating institutions and countries.
The subtask is divided into the following research activities.
Activity A.1. This includes systematic assessment of potential benefits, limitations and performance indicators of resilient cooling systems under a wide range of application scenarios and other boundary conditions. We generate Resilient Cooling ‘Technology Profiles’ to clearly summarise and promote the operational characteristics and benefits of each technology/system. Recommendations for good implementation, commissioning and operation are being developed. Barriers to application and further research opportunities are being identified, which will inform research activities of Subtask B.
Activity A.2. This activity focuses on the development of multi-criterial technology characterisation methodologies that lead to consistent and measurable key performance indicators (KPIs) covering technical performance, range of applicable situations, ecological and social aspects, ecological impacts, and user-technology interaction analyses. This work is being tailored to residential buildings and smaller non-residential buildings with relatively simple building management systems (BMS). The KPIs derived from this research activity will be implemented into the Technology Profiles of Activity A.1.
Activity A.3. This activity includes identification and further development of methods and tools for prediction of the capacity and performance of the full range of viable resilient cooling system types to reduce cooling needs and overheating risks. Again, the findings on suitable methods and tools from this research activity will be integrated into the multi-criteria Technology Profiles generated in Activity A.1.
Subtask B: Solutions
Subtask B carries out specific R&D towards new developments and improvements of resilient cooling and overheating protection solutions. It extends the boundaries of existing low energy and low carbon cooling solutions and develops new solutions, combinations of technologies and applications.
Subtask B is organized within specific national R&D projects, including methodological approaches such as numeric modelling and measurements on lab scale and prototype scale.
Given that many countries have specific climatic and other contextual interests, Subtask B covers research topics that are both internationally relevant and nationally specific. It covers a broad variety of research topics and research methodologies, leveraging the specific research priorities and capabilities of the participants in the Annex.
The subtask is structured into the following research activities.
Activity B.1. This activity carries out specific R&D projects towards development of new solutions and combinations of technologies and applications. Furthermore it comprises R&D projects towards the extension of the range of situations where existing resilient cooling technologies and systems may be applied (e.g. with regard to building type, climate zones, occupancy characteristics, etc.).
Activity B.2. This activity examines user interaction issues and system control issues, including the impact of user behaviour on system performance.
Subtask C: Field Studies
Subtask C showcases the opportunities and benefits of Resilient Cooling through analysis and evaluation of well-documented applications of low energy and low carbon (resilient) cooling technologies.
The field studies analyse and monitor examples of specific technologies and solutions rather than specific buildings. It examines the performance gap of existing cooling applications as well as their real performance in situ, with special concern at socio-technological interaction as well as control strategies.
The outcomes of Subtask C will illustrate and support the Technology Profiles developed in Subtask A.
The subtask is structured into the following research activities:
Activity C.1. This activity develops a systematic framework for the conduction of the field studies and the investigation of the gathered datasets.
Activity C.2. This activity consists of performance analysis and evaluation of performance gaps of resilient cooling solutions, design methods and tools with special concern at socio-technological interaction as well as control strategies using criteria and methods defined in Activity C.1.
Activity C.3. This activity compiles lessons learned and develops recommendations for design and operation of resilient cooling solutions as well as identification of barriers for applications and functioning in the form of a publishable Field Study Reports.
Subtask D: Policy Actions
Subtask D deals with policy related endeavours, promoting energy efficiency and resilience in cooling.This subtask analyses product labelling programmes, AC minimum energy performance standards (MEPs), building regulations, standards and compliance requirements, to identify international best practice examples as well as potential barriers.
One of the objectives of subtask D is to set frameworks for Demand Side Management (DSM) including social programmes and others.
The goal is to develop recommendations for future regulatory policies to support the implementation and mainstreaming of resilient cooling systems on a national, European and international level.
In that sense Subtask D strives to represent a toehold for international programmes, such as
- KIGALI – Cooling Efficiency Programme
- Mission Innovation Challenge #7
- IEA Technology Collaborating Programmes
Activity D.1. This activity analyses and internationally performs cross comparison of national and international product labelling programmes, AC minimum energy performance standards (MEPs), sustainability aspects in building regulations and standards related to resilient cooling.
Activity D.2. This activity encompasses collaboration with international programmes such as KIGALI – Cooling Efficiency Programme, Mission Innovation Challenge #7 and correlated IEA Technology Collaborating Programmes to support mainstreaming of resilient cooling solutions.